The Challenges of Semi-Presidentialism in Tunisia

by Alicia Pastor y Camarasa, PhD Candidate at University of Louvain
Following the 2011 revolution in Tunisia, one of the key demands of the people was a change in the political regime. This would represent a break from the authoritarian past, where the 1959 constitutional regime saw the power wholly concentrated in the hands of the President of the Republic. The president enjoyed complete executive prerogative and was not accountable to the legislative chamber. Up until the revolution, the constitution was continuously amended to strengthen presidential prerogatives. Under the 1959 constitution, there was technically a Prime Minister, but the position remained completely under the aegis of the President.

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Conference Report–Imposed Constitutions: Aspects of Imposed Constitutionalism–University of Nicosia, Cyprus

by Yota Negishi, Waseda University; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Cross-post from I·CONnect,

On 5-6 May 2017, the School of Law of the University of Nicosia hosted the international Conference “Imposed Constitutions: Aspects of Imposed Constitutionalism”, in collaboration with the Research Group on Constitution-Making and Constitutional Change of the International Association of Constitutional Law (IACL), and the Centre for European Constitutional Law – Themistocles and Dimitris Tsatsos Foundation.

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Preambles of Constitutions- a comparative study of 194 current constitutions

by Vladan Kutlesic, Belgrade Bussines School, Serbia.
This analysis pertains to texts of preambles of constitutions currently in force which were available online, especially on specialized web sites (e.g. Constitution Finder – Richmond University, Google Constitute, IACL database etc.). The purpose of the analysis is to question the positions found in the theory of constitutional law regarding preambles, not only because they were formed through an analysis of a small number of actual preambles, but also because more than half of constitutions currently in force were passed after the year 1990, and a third after the year 2000.

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Five ideas on the Spanish autonomous state in the hope they are useful for Nepal

by Agustín Ruiz Robledo

Nepal and Spain are separated by more than 8,000 km and they have very different societies and cultures (although I think that the origin of the Spanish flamenco is not so far from Kathmandu). However, Nepal has taken a decision similar to that of Spain almost 40 years ago: to change the unitary State into a federal one. For this reason, I think the Spanish experience maybe useful in Nepal’s present constitutional debate. I will summarize this experience in five ideas that can be applied to Nepal, without committing to many mistakes due to my limited knowledge of the reality of the Himalayan country.

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Egypt’s State of Emergency Revisited

by Prof. Dr. Andrej Zwitter, University of Groningen

After 44 years of reign by emergency powers, the Egyptian people forced President Mubarak to resign on 11 February 2011. While Egypt has ratified the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in 1982, since then it has not declared any of its human rights derogations under Article 4 ICCPR as the State of Emergency Mapping Database illustrates.

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Why the making of a crowd-sourced Constitution in Iceland failed

by Björg Thorarensen

The process of constitutional rewriting in Iceland in 2010-2013 was an unprecedented event in modern constitutional democracies as a way of introducing new political and democratic processes. It reflected attempts to come to terms with the consequences of the collapse of the Icelandic banks in 2008 and widespread distrust towards the political parties in Iceland. In June 2010, the Icelandic Parliament, Althingi, passed Act No. 90/2010 establishing a consultative Constitutional Assembly, with the task of revising the constitution.

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Constitutional transitions in the Middle East and North Africa: Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco and Jordan (2011-2014)

by Asterios Bouzias, Dr. iur.

The “Arab Spring” led to series of constitutional transitions in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The process of constitutional change did not follow the same course in all these countries. According to the recent historical experience of the region’s countries, two patterns of constitutional change could be distinguished.

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